Transformer Explosion & Fire Prevention System

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Transformer Explosion & Fire Prevention System 

Transformer explosion are disastrous due to the large quantity of oil in contact with high voltage elements. The loopholes in the international regulation have brought down the quality of the transformers increasing thereby the number of transformer explosion cases.  We have already identified many cases where the prevailing fire extinguishing system has provoked transformer explosion or has not been able to stop spreading of fire from one transformer to another or to the entire substation and surrounding areas

The norm IEC 76 only includes basic electrical measurements and do not cover mechanical design or protection whereas the pressure vessels should comply with stringent rules and controls such directives do not exist for transformers, which are obviously more dangerous. 

Impact of Transformer Explosion

Transformer Oil Fire is difficult to extinguish

 While searching on internet for the explosions in USA, we have discovered that most of the sites were equipped with fire fighting systems but they have failed to extinguish the fire. This evidence was highlighted by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) handbook, Edition 2002, Vol II Section 13, page 292 & 293 and edition 2008, Section 9, page 9-187 & 9-188.

Damage cost & Revenue loss due to transformer explosions and fire

As per the published report on the damaged cost & revenue loss caused by transformer explosions, the financial consequences have often risen to hundred million of USD. Transformer explosion and fire causes considerable revenue loss, resulting into the replacement of transformer and damage equipments, also leads to pollution and it badly affects the reputation and goodwill of the company.

  • Power Plant Incidents and Power Supply Shortage
  • Transmission Substation Incidents & Resulting Blackout
  • Distribution Transformer Explosions

 System Description 

System functions in three steps when activated

a)    Depressurization

The system depressurizes the transformer tank before the static pressure limit of the tank is reached. The depressurization is the most important action to prevent Transformer Explosion.

b)    Inert gas Injection

After depressurization, the inert gas injection starts into the transformer tank and continues for approximately 45 minutes.

c)    Stirring

The inert gas stirs the oil, mixes warm and cool oil in order to evacuate the explosive gases from the transformer. This action allows the maintenance team to open the transformer safely as the explosive gases in contact with oxygen could generate a post insulation failure explosion with increased risk to human life.

Consequently, the transformer explosion and fire could be prevented.